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Advantages & Disadvantages Of Swot Analysis

advantages and disadvantages of swot analysis

Organisations have been using this popular framework to effectively evaluate a company’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Like any other analytical framework though, SWOT also has its limitations too. That’s why it’s important to thoroughly understand it before you use it for strategic planning and informed decision-making.

SWOT analysis is one of the most widely used strategic planning tools in the business and offers a great overview of all the factors impacting an organisation’s performance and operations.

Read on for an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of using SWOT analysis in your business to help you determine if it’s the right improvement framework for you.

What is SWOT Analysis?

SWOT is short for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats.

  • Strengths– An organisation competes with certain skills, resources, and unique selling points or USPs. These attributes that differentiate a business from its competitors are its strengths.
  • Weaknesses- These are often the internal issues and vulnerabilities that put organisations at risk of potential business loss. A weakness in business terms can be anything from staff shortage to faulty equipment.
  • Opportunities- Business opportunities are the chances that organisations can take to improve their overall performance.
  • Threats- Several external factors and conditions that may negatively impact an organisation’s performance in any way can be considered threats.

SWOT analysis identifies and evaluates these four elements to gain insight into an organisation’s overall situation. It helps to understand the strategic position of an organisation in the market. The framework’s goal is to play on strengths, address weaknesses, cash in opportunities, and eliminate any potential risks to the company.

Key Benefits of SWOT Analysis

SWOT analysis can have several benefits if you can succeed in applying it. Let’s have a look at some key advantages of leveraging SWOT analysis for your organisation.

Highlights Priority Issues

SWOT can systematically assess the current internal and external conditions and highlight key issues within an organisation. This allows managers to focus on addressing the most important opportunities, threats, strengths, and weaknesses facing their business.

Provides Strategic Insights

One of the biggest reasons you should assess all four SWOT components is to know a company’s strategic position and competitiveness across the industry. These insights allow managers to build data-driven strategies. SWOT makes your strategies more aligned with organisational and environmental realities.

Fosters Collaboration

SWOT analysis is a great way to promote collaboration since different teams and departments work together. Having different perspectives refines the quality of insights. You can sense the departments or organisations aligning around priorities and strategy even during the assessment.

Generates Future Scenarios

It’s good to keep an eye on what’s coming in business to be proactive about potential future opportunities and threats. With an in-depth analysis of everything, business owners and their managers can discuss how their strengths or weaknesses may interact with any future situations.

Simple and Flexible

SWOT is a very simple framework that is flexible enough to be applied across all types of organisations, departments, initiatives, markets, and more. So, if you feel there’s just one department that needs an assessment, you don’t have to waste time analysing the entire business.

Low Cost

There’s ZERO financial investment for conducting a SWOT assessment. Tons of paid tools and models exist, but SWOT just needs time.

These are a few of the many reasons why SWOT analysis is valued highly among business owners for providing strategic insights.

Disadvantages and Limitations of SWOT

Even after being widely used, SWOT analysis does have some disadvantages that you might need to consider.

Subjective Perspectives

SWOT heavily relies on the knowledge and perceptions of everyone involved in the assessment. Having a variety of people is both an advantage and a disadvantage sometimes. You may have to deal with different opinions of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

Not a Standalone Tool

You cannot use SWOT as the only tool for decisive solutions. It can help you with some very useful information, but you will need to pair it with other models if you want to validate your findings and take data-driven business decisions.

Static View

SWOT analysis is not a one-time thing, meaning what you analyse now might not be true in a month, especially if you are from a fast-growing and evolving industry. So, SWOT analysis requires consistent revisits, and the frequency depends on how quickly things change in your business landscape.

Overemphasis on Strengths

Some organisations end up overly focused on leveraging current strengths with SWOT rather than developing new capabilities for the future. This unbalanced perspective can negatively impact your growth.

Simplifies Complexity

Sometimes, complex organisational and competitive dynamics cannot be understood with an oversimplified SWOT analysis explanation. So rather than assuming things, managers should dig deeper and pair SWOT with other methods for the best results.

Lacks Implementation Details

As mentioned earlier too, there are no actionable steps defined. Managers do get a hold of the priorities, but they don’t get a plan of execution.

Knowing these limitations can help you maximise benefits while mitigating any risks of incomplete or incorrect analysis. SWOT should be treated as a part of the planning rather than the entire planning.

When is SWOT Analysis Most Useful?

SWOT assessments are excellent for getting helpful input into an organisation’s planning and strategies across many situations. It can be applied through different scenarios, but we think it can be most useful in the following:

New Strategy Development

It’s good to set your strategic priorities right when entering a new planning cycle. SWOT analysis will enable managers to focus towards impactful goals as per existing conditions.

Competitive Benchmarking

You can compare your organisation’s SWOT factors with competitors to find relative strengths and exploit their weaknesses to differentiate in the market.

New Market Entry

Entering new markets requires managers and business owners to be aware of key differences across different regions or segments. SWOT can help you identify these variations to adapt strategies accordingly.

Major Decision-Making

SWOT analysis before major business decisions like new product launches, mergers, or technology investments can help you highlight opportunities and potential risks.

Performance Troubleshooting

Organisations often suffer from financial or operational glitches. SWOT assessment can pinpoint the bottlenecks and areas that can be improved for more productivity.

Leadership Changes

For new leaders or managers joining an organisation, SWOT can be a quick way to familiarise them with current strategies in place and the competitive landscape.

SWOT Alternatives for Strategic Analysis

As mentioned earlier, SWOT analysis shouldn’t be used as a standalone tool. Here are a few strategic planning tools and methods that perfectly complement SWOT for business strategies.

PEST Analysis

PEST identifies how political, economic, social, and technological factors are impacting an organisation. It can provide a context to SWOT as you can look for opportunities and risks in PEST.

Porter’s Five Forces

The infamous Porter’s Five Forces, including supplier power, buyer power, competitive rivalry, threats of substitution and new entry to understand industry dynamics, can be a very useful addition to your SWOT assessment.

Scenario Planning

Try imagining possible future scenarios based on different combinations of external factors and stress-test your strategies for them. SWOT can inform such scenarios.


SWOT techniques are great for competitive benchmarking since you can get operational and financial metrics and compare them to industry peers. You can identify performance gaps and opportunities to improve.

Value Chain Analysis

Value chain analysis can identify any wasted efforts and also highlight activities creating the most value. These findings can help your SWOT assessment.

Evaluating Business Strengths in a SWOT

The strengths of an organisation include everything from internal capabilities to resources, services, strategies, and anything else that allows an organisation to compete and differentiate in the market effectively. Some examples include:

  • Strong brand reputation – a positive brand image established among customers.
  • Proprietary technology/IP – any exclusive product or service that competitors lack.
  • Excellent supply chain – a quick distribution channel, on-time sourcing, and efficient manufacturing.
  • High customer retention – the ability to consistently maintain positive customer relationships over time results in higher customer retention.
  • Positive company culture – a productive, dynamic, and motivated workforce.
  • Established distribution channels – existing retailer relationships that provide access to a wider market.
  • Unique product/service – offering exclusive features or quality that stands apart.
  • Financial performance – steady financial growth, cash flow, shareholder returns, and profits.

Managers can identify competitive advantages to leverage in their business strategies by carefully assessing company strengths.

Pinpointing Business Weaknesses in SWOT

Weaknesses are the internal deficiencies or vulnerabilities that may hinder an organisation’s future growth. Identifying them can help a business recognize gaps and successfully execute strategies. Some examples of weaknesses include:

  • Negative brand perception – a poor reputation among consumers.
  • High employee turnover – inability to retain top talent for long.
  • Outdated technology/systems – consistently using outdated infrastructure or tools.
  • Narrow product line – lack of diversity and offering a limited line of products.
  • Inefficient operations – waste, excessive costs, quality issues, delays.
  • Weak distribution reach – limited sales/distribution channels and geographic coverage.
  • Low customer retention – unable to maintain long-term customer relationships.
  • Poor marketing skills – ineffective promotional programs and marketing campaigns.

Capitalising on Business Opportunities

Opportunities in terms of business refer to all the external factors and trends that can significantly accelerate business growth. These can be:

  • Favourable demographic changes– changes in age, income, education, or cultural preferences that expand your target market.
  • New technologies – emerging innovations relevant to your products, services, processes, distribution channels, or marketing.
  • Changing consumer behaviours – evolving lifestyles and preferences that generate new needs.
  • Untapped market segments– customer groups that are underserved with more needs.
  • Weakening competition – a decline in competitive intensity or services.
  • Reduced regulations – fewer regulatory/compliance obligations, creating more freedom for businesses to operate.
  • Positive economic conditions – periods of growth, stability, or recovery that open demand.
  • Media and partnerships – new access to media platforms for promotions or collaboration.

Mitigating External Threats

Any unfavourable conditions that may hinder an organisation’s performance in the future are threats. Some of the common external threats include:

  • Increasing competition – new competitors in the market or alternate products or services.
  • Market decline – negative market size and declining trends.
  • Technological disruption – outdated offerings due to ever-changing technology.
  • Supply chain disruption – volatility in costs, availability, or delivery of products or services.
  • Adverse economic conditions – recessions, inflation, and currency or market fluctuations that curb demand.
  • Demographic shifts – ageing populations, declining birth rates, urbanisation and other demographic changes that shrink your target markets.
  • Increasing regulations – too many legal burdens that raise production costs and restrict business activities.
  • Negative media – negative publicity, social media backlash, underperforming Corporate Social Responsibility events.

Best Practices for Using SWOT Analysis

The following are the best practices to maximise the value derived from SWOT assessments:

  • Define the objectives and decisions clearly before beginning the analysis.
  • Take a holistic approach and include all business units, functions, markets, and geographies.
  • Assemble a multi-talented and diverse team to improve the depth and quality of SWOT.
  • Gather insights from external stakeholders such as customers and partners as well as internal teams.
  • Be critical while evaluating strengths and identify sustainable long-term advantages. Sometimes, inexperienced teams end up labelling long-term weaknesses as strengths.
  • Urgent weaknesses should be addressed on priority, and you must focus on opportunities to turn them into strengths.
  • The assessment should be dynamic rather than static, meaning you should update it periodically or with changing conditions. Remember, SWOT is not a one-time thing.
  • Maintain objectivity and avoid biases, assumptions, or politics that may falsify the assessment.
  • Use SWOT as an input but not the only input into your organisation’s strategy development. Always validate findings through other means or tools.

Putting SWOT Into Action

Identifying strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats is one thing and turning these helpful insights into strategic action is another. How well your organisation puts SWOT into action determines how well you can get the best value out of it.

Once the SWOT assessment is complete, the next step is to analyse relationships between different SWOT components and create informed strategies. For instance, pairing strengths with opportunities will highlight areas where existing skills or attributes can be leveraged to maximise growth on external trends or shifts. Similarly, aligning weaknesses to threats can uncover vulnerabilities that need immediate attention to avoid any potential damage.

Beyond these basic pairings, managers should be creative to combine SWOT components while deriving strategic insights. Find out if emerging opportunities can balance out or diminish current weaknesses upon action or not. Look for threats that might damage existing organisational strengths.

This analytical pairing and clustering of SWOT factors can guide strategic priorities and objectives. Organisations can use the priorities identified through this analysis to make strategic decisions and investments that:

  • Leverage and grow existing strengths
  • Fill up gaps and deficiencies
  • Make the most of emerging trends and opportunities
  • Protect against significant threats
  • Or some combination of these four priority areas

If strategic objectives are defined, the final step is to convert them into an actionable strategic plan with specific goals, tactical initiatives, resource allocations, and more. For example, if an opportunity and strength pairing highlights the potential for business expansion into a new regional market, your strategic plan would detail your market entry approach, financial requirements, changes required to your products/services, hiring needs, and timelines required to execute this action.

Approaching SWOT analysis like this ensures that organisations get better at strategic decision-making and targeted action plans rather than just producing lists of factors. Real-world business impact is only possible if you successfully convert SWOT insights into well-defined strategies and execute them perfectly.

SWOT Supports Strategic Decision-Making

SWOT analysis is designed to improve strategic planning and business decision-making by revealing issues on priority. It provides insights into how an organisation’s strengths and weaknesses interact with upcoming threats as well as opportunities.

Being an easy-to-implement tool that can be applied to so many scenarios, SWOT assessments are found everywhere in business and management practice. We also highlighted a few disadvantages to SWOT analysis, but they can be avoided by following best practices and using other methods to complement SWOT.

For business leaders and managers looking to optimise strategic planning, SWOT remains a valuable tool in their arsenal. Intelligent execution of this method can help executives enhance their knowledge of the business environment. Plus, they can make smarter, more informed decisions about the future of the organisation. Leverage SWOT to execute on priorities and gain an edge over your competitors.



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