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Is It Illegal to Work Without a Contract in the UK

Is It Illegal to Work Without a Contract in the UK

In short, no, it is not outright illegal to work without a written employment contract in the UK but employers are legally required to provide employees with a “written statement of employment particulars” that covers basic terms like pay and work hours. This must be given from day one of employment.

As a small business owner or manager in the UK, you may wonder if you need to issue contracts to people who work for you or whether it is illegal to work without a contract at all. This is an important question, as having clear agreements in place can protect both you and your employees.

Relying solely on verbal agreements carries risks for both employers and employees. While written contracts are not mandated, they bring significant protection and clarity and employment advisors advise formalising terms in writing wherever possible.

So in summary:

  • No law outright prohibits verbal employment contracts
  • But written terms are a legal requirement
  • And full written contracts are strongly recommended

What is an Employment Contract?

What is an employment contract

An employment contract is a legally binding agreement between an employer and an employee that outlines the terms and conditions of employment. This typically includes details like:

  • Job title and job description
  • Place of work
  • Hours of work
  • Rate of pay and benefits
  • Holiday entitlement
  • Notice periods
  • Sick pay eligibility
  • Disciplinary and grievance procedures

A written contract provides certainty for both parties on what has been agreed. It also protects employee statutory rights like receiving the National Minimum Wage and minimum holiday entitlement.

Employment contracts do not have to be lengthy or complex documents. They can be as simple as a letter offering employment and the employee signing to confirm acceptance.

What are the Main Types of Employment Contracts?

There are several common types of contractual agreements used to employ staff:

Permanent Contracts

This provides ongoing employment with no fixed end date. The contract remains in force indefinitely until terminated by either the employer or employee per the notice terms. Permanent contracts underpin most long-term employment relationships.

Fixed Term Contracts

These contracts end on an agreed expiry date or circumstance, such as completion of a specific project. There is no expectation of renewal, so no notice period is required. Fixed term contracts suit temporary roles.

Zero Hours Contracts

There are no guaranteed minimum hours with these contracts. The employee agrees to work flexible hours as demanded by the business. Zero hours contracts suit casual roles with unpredictable workflows.

Agency Worker Contracts

The agency contracts the worker to provide services to clients on a flexible basis. The worker is not directly employed by any one business. Agency contracts provide flexibility but less stability.

Freelance or Consultancy Contracts

Self-employed contractors agree to deliver defined projects or services for a business under a commercial contract for services. Control and obligations are limited compared to employment contracts.

Apprenticeship Agreements

Apprenticeships combine work with structured training. The agreement sets out reduced pay to reflect the training element while still providing employment rights.

Ensuring you use the most appropriate contract for a given role provides benefits for both employer and employee. Seek advice to determine the best option.

Is a Verbal Agreement Valid?

Yes, a verbal employment agreement is legally valid under UK law. An employment contract exists from the moment the job offer is accepted by the new employee, whether verbal or written but additional legal requirements around written terms still apply.

What is the Legal Requirement for Written Terms?

Under the Employment Rights Act 1996, employers must provide employees with a ‘written statement of employment particulars’ covering certain required information such as pay and work location.

This statement must be provided on day one for contracts lasting over one month. For contracts of one month or less, the statement must be given within two months.

At a minimum, the written statement must include:

  • The employee and employer’s name
  • The start date of employment
  • The date the employee’s continuous employment started
  • The method, rate or scale for calculating pay
  • The intervals at which remuneration will be paid
  • Working hours such as normal hours, days of work etc
  • Holiday entitlement details
  • Sick pay eligibility
  • Pension scheme details
  • Notice periods
  • Job title or description
  • End date for fixed-term contracts
  • Normal place of work
  • Disciplinary and grievance procedures

Therefore, even if flexible working arrangements or other terms are agreed verbally, these still need to be documented in writing to comply with legal requirements.

What are the Consequences of Not Providing Written Terms?

There are several potential consequences if you fail to provide the required written statement:

  • Employees can legally request a written statement if one has not already been given. You will be breaking the law if you do not provide this.
  • It makes it much harder for you to enforce any verbal terms agreed upon. Without evidence in writing, it becomes your word against the employee if there is a dispute.
  • You lose the opportunity to make the employee aware of important company policies like disciplinary procedures, dress code, etc in writing.
  • The employee is not legally bound to any verbal restrictive covenants like confidentiality, intellectual property rights, or non-competes. This leaves you unprotected.
  • If you dismiss the employee, they could claim unfair dismissal due to a lack of formal procedures they were unaware of.
  • You may become liable for a financial penalty if an employment tribunal finds you failed to meet your legal obligations.

Therefore, relying solely on a spoken agreement leaves you exposed as an employer.

What Steps Should You Take?

To meet your legal obligations and properly formalise the employment relationship, you should:

1. Develop Written Terms

Seek guidance from HR professionals or legal advisors when drafting written terms. Free templates are also available online.

Ensure you cover the required written statement particulars. You can also include any additional terms suitable for your business.

2. Have Employees Sign

Have the employee sign and date the written terms – provide them a copy and keep one for your records. This documents their acceptance.

3. Allow Time for Review

Give adequate time (e.g. 24 hours) for the new starter to review the written terms before signing. Avoid pressuring them to sign on the spot.

4. Follow the Agreements

Manage employment according to the agreed written terms e.g. giving proper notice periods. This demonstrates the validity of the agreements.

5. Update as Needed

Review and update written terms periodically, getting them re-signed if key information changes substantially. This keeps terms current.

What are the Alternatives to a Full Written Contract?

If drafting formal contracts seems daunting, there are some more lightweight alternatives that still meet the legal requirement:

Offer Letter

This letter can outline key terms like job title, pay, hours, holiday etc. and form a basic written agreement when signed.

Written Statement

You can provide a simple statement just covering the legal minimum requirements without a full contract.

However, both these options still leave you more exposed than a comprehensive written contract. Key protections for your business will be missing.

When Does a Full Written Contract Become Essential?

While not an outright legal requirement, having a full written contract becomes particularly important if:

  • The employee will have access to confidential information or trade secrets. Additional confidentiality and IP clauses are strongly recommended.
  • The employee represents or deals directly with clients/customers. More extensive service and conduct terms should be set.
  • The employee holds a senior or management position. More restrictive covenants may be justified to protect the business.
  • The role comes with extra benefits like a company car, phone, stock options etc. Terms around use, return and forfeiture of these benefits should be defined.
  • Extensive training or professional development is provided. ‘Minimum service’ clauses may be justified to protect your investment if the employee leaves shortly after.
  • Unique circumstances apply like remote working arrangements, flexible hours or atypical roles. Documenting the specific agreements provides helpful clarity.

Even without the above, the protection a full written contract provides will justify the small additional time investment for most small business owners.

What Issues Can Arise Without Written Terms?

Some potential issues that can occur include:

  • Confusion – Verbal agreements can be misinterpreted or forgotten, leading to disagreements later on.
  • Enforceability – It becomes much harder to enforce verbal agreements and contractual terms without written evidence.
  • Benefits – Any additional benefits beyond statutory minimums are hard to track without written confirmation of what was agreed.

Understanding Why Some Choose to Work Without a Contract

Understanding Why Some Choose to Work Without a Contract

While working without an employment contract carries risks, some employees may make the choice deliberately in certain circumstances.

For example, those working illegally in a country may wish to avoid having their status formalised in writing. Others in more casual or temporary roles may prioritise the flexibility of not having contracted hours or duties.

Some may hope that without written terms, they can negotiate better pay or conditions. However, the risks often outweigh any perceived benefits.

Ultimately, knowingly working without a contract indicates a concerning power imbalance in the employment relationship. Responsible employers will wish to formalise agreements in writing to protect all parties.

Options If You Find Yourself Working Without Written Terms

If you have started working and belatedly realise you do not have any written terms in place, don’t panic. There are steps you can take to formalise your employment:

  • Raise the issue politely with your manager. They may simply have overlooked providing you with the required written statement.
  • If they refuse, follow up in writing politely requesting a written statement of your employment particulars. Employers are legally required to provide this.
  • Be patient but firm if avoidance continues. You have a right to a written statement of core terms and conditions. Consider involving your HR department or legal advisor if needed.
  • In the meantime, keep your own careful records of any verbal agreements, hours worked, payments made etc. This evidence will strengthen your position.

While many work without contracts temporarily, you should aim to get written terms finalised quickly. Being upfront but professional can help resolve the situation.

When to Walk Away From a Role Without a Contract

If an employer point-blank refuses to provide written confirmation of your employment agreements, it may become an unacceptable risk to continue working in that role, even temporarily.

Red flags to watch for include:

  • They insist all terms must remain verbal and seem resistant to documentation.
  • They don’t pay you on time or as agreed.
  • They frequently change agreed hours, duties or pay rates on a whim.
  • They require you to take on unreasonable or dangerous tasks.
  • You witness misconduct, discrimination or abuse at the workplace.

Should any of the above arise, strongly consider terminating the unstable employment situation. No job is worth compromising your rights or safety over. Seek legal advice if you have any concerns about your rights or ability to safely exit the role.


To summarise the key points, while it is not outright illegal to work without a written contract in the UK, employers are still required to provide employees with a basic written statement of terms. This helps protect the rights of both parties.

  • Verbal agreements are legally valid but lack clarity and enforceability.
  •  Full written contracts bring significant additional advantages and protections.
  • That’s why employment experts strongly advise formalising details in writing wherever possible.
  • If you find yourself working without written terms, you can take steps to politely request these from your employer. Most reputable businesses will be happy to oblige.
  • If any concerns arise about refusal to document agreements, it may become safest to exit the unstable employment situation.
  • Appropriate contracts like permanent, fixed-term or zero-hours agreements help structure the employment relationship.
  • Seeking guidance to ensure you use the right contracts demonstrates professionalism and benefits all involved.

Overall, verbal employment deals are risky territory. Small business owners should prioritise formally defining their workplace agreements in a spirit of clarity, fairness and mutual protection. Doing so cements professional relationships and provides security for the future.


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