(3) Juno Therapeutics
In 2014, this Alaska-based developer of cellular immunotherapy treatments which work to cure certain types of blood cancer was responsible for the rapidly growing biotech sectors largest ever IPO.
Valued at around $300bn, Junos success and accelerated growth is the result of an Alaskan state-operated fund syphoning vast swathes of cash into biotech startups in recent years in an attempt to create a new global hub.
The company is knee-deep in developing next-generation cancer treatments that harness the immune system to find and destroy cancer cells.
Fuelled by Alaskas traditional oil wealth, Juno Therapeutics is the most noteworthy recipient from the $50bn Alaska Permanent Fund, which has made similar investments in up and coming global biotech firms Codiak BioSciences and Denali Theapeutics.
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Founded in 2002 by former PayPal entrepreneur Elon Musk, Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) designs, builds and launches rockets and spacecraft.
Headquartered in California, SpaceX aims is to build simple and relatively inexpensive rockets that can be reused again and again, reducing space transportation costs and creating the technology that can facilitate to colonisation of Mars.
In 2008, the successful launch of its Falcon 1″ rocket saw the firm become the first privately-funded company to successfully launch, orbit and recover a spacecraft. It was awarded NASA contracts to design and build a launch system to resupply cargo to the International Space Station (ISS) and to date has flown six resupply missions to ISS.
In January last year, Google bought an 11 per cent stake of the company for $900m, suggesting an overall valuation of roughly $12bn.
(5) YKK Group
Keeping everyone zipped up, YKK Group is the Japanese company responsible for producing 7.2bn zippers every year enough to zip up every pair of trousers in the world and utterly dominating the global zipper industry.
Born in 1934 and grown out of the ashes of the Second World War in 1946, the company was founded by 20-year-old apprentice Tadao Yoshida a detail-obsessed young man who took over the remains of the bankrupt business of his former boss, including a small subsidiary making handmade zippers.
Having been run by Tadaos son Tadahiro since 1993, YKK has been at the forefront of developing the zip-making manufacturing process ever since its conception, and today is valued to the tune of approximately $6bn. YKKs sky scraper-producing subsidiary has opened up a booming new market for YKK in recent years, and with zipper sales in the Far East, Middle East and Eastern Europe showing no signs of slowing down, chances are the Japanese giant will be at the top of its game for some time come.